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Whole Foods Market is an American supermarket chain exclusively featuring foods without artificial preservatives, colors, flavors, sweeteners, and hydrogenated fats.
On August 23, , it was reported that the Federal Trade Commission approved the merger between Amazon. Junglee is a former online shopping service provided by Amazon that enabled customers to search for products from online and offline retailers in India.
Junglee started off as a virtual database that was used to extract information off the internet and deliver it to enterprise applications.
As it progressed, Junglee started to use its database technology to create a single window marketplace on the internet by making every item from every supplier available for purchase.
Web shoppers could locate, compare and transact millions of products from across the Internet shopping mall through one window. Amazon acquired Junglee in , and the website Junglee.
It curated and enabled searching for a diverse variety of products such as clothing, electronics, toys, jewelry and video games, among others, across thousands of online and offline sellers.
Millions of products are browse-able, whereby the client selects a price, and then they are directed to a seller.
In November , Amazon closed down Junglee. Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each product. Reviewers must rate the product on a rating scale from one to five stars.
Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicate the real name of the reviewer based on confirmation of a credit card account or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity.
Customers may comment or vote on the reviews, indicating whether they found a review helpful to them. If a review is given enough "helpful" hits, it appears on the front page of the product.
In , Amazon was reported as being the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews. When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that Amazon.
Amazon has cooperated with around publishers to allow users to perform these searches. To avoid copyright violations, Amazon does not return the computer-readable text of the book.
Instead, it returns a picture of the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing and puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access.
Additionally, customers can purchase online access to some of the same books via the "Amazon Upgrade" program. Worldwide, Amazon has "over , members" in its affiliate programs.
Unlike eBay , Amazon sellers do not have to maintain separate payment accounts; all payments are handled by Amazon. A new affiliate product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon products within another website, or linked to another website.
In June , Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched rumored to be internally called "Project Genesis" to provide more transparency to sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon.
The Amazon sales rank ASR provides an indication of the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of popularity that is updated hourly.
Effectively, it is a "best sellers list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon. However, Amazon has now begun to release point of sale data via the Nielsen BookScan service to verified authors.
Some companies have analyzed Amazon sales data to generate sales estimates based on the ASR,  though Amazon states:. Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers—we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources.
Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started by focusing on business-to-consumer relationships between itself and its customers and business-to-business relationships between itself and its suppliers and then moved to facilitate customer-to-customer with the Amazon marketplace which acts as an intermediary to facilitate transactions.
The company lets anyone sell nearly anything using its platform. Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products in addition to selling them through their own websites.
The sales are processed through Amazon. Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price.
These are members or entities that advertise goods on Amazon who order these goods direct from other competing websites but usually from other Amazon members.
These meta sellers may have millions of products listed, have large transaction numbers and are grouped alongside other less prolific members giving them credibility as just someone who has been in business for a long time.
As Amazon increases their dominance in the marketplace these drop shippers have become more and more commonplace in recent years. The store is 5, square feet and prices for all products match those on its website.
Since sales increased from Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy from multiple sources over its actions. In December , Amazon faced a backlash from small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price Check app.
One effort to squeeze the most vulnerable book publishers was known within the company as the Gazelle Project, after Bezos suggested, according to Brad Stone , "that Amazon should approach these small publishers the way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle.
In the suit, Apple provided evidence that Amazon was selling these counterfeit Apple products and advertising them as genuine. Amazon was sourcing and selling items without properly determining if they are genuine.
In most countries where Amazon operates, a sales tax or value added tax is uniform throughout the country, and Amazon is obliged to collect it from all customers.
Proponents of forcing Amazon. He also pointed to the fact that Amazon had paid no federal income tax in the previous year.
The statement also charged that it was inappropriate for him to refer to SNAP as "food stamps". Sanders congratulated the company for making this decision.
Amazon has attracted widespread criticism for poor working conditions by both current employees, who refer to themselves as Amazonians,  and former employees,   as well as the media and politicians.
Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow in fresh air, because of concerns over theft. Some workers, "pickers", who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner "picking" customer orders can walk up to 15 miles during their workday and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded.
The handheld scanners give real-time information to the employee on how quickly or slowly they are working; the scanners also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the specific locations of employees and how much "idle time" they gain when not working.
The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards, themselves being employed by a third party company, who apparently either had a neo-Nazi background or deliberately dressed in neo-Nazi apparel and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centers.
The third party security company involved was delisted by Amazon as a business contact shortly after that report.
In March , it was reported in The Verge that Amazon will be removing non-compete clauses of 18 months in length from its US employment contracts for hourly-paid workers, after criticism that it was acting unreasonably in preventing such employees from finding other work.
Even short-term temporary workers have to sign contracts that prohibit them from working at any company where they would "directly or indirectly" support any good or service that competes with those they helped support at Amazon, for 18 months after leaving Amazon, even if they are fired or made redundant.
A front-page article in The New York Times profiled several former Amazon employees  who together described a "bruising" workplace culture in which workers with illness or other personal crises were pushed out or unfairly evaluated.
In an effort to boost employee morale, on November 2, , Amazon announced that it would be extending six weeks of paid leave for new mothers and fathers.
This change includes birth parents and adoptive parents and can be applied in conjunction with existing maternity leave and medical leave for new mothers.
On Black Friday , Amazon warehouse workers in several European countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, went on strike to protest inhumane working conditions and low pay.
In May , Amazon threatened the Seattle City Council over an employee head tax proposal that would have funded houselessness services and low-income housing.
Although originally passed, the measure was soon repealed after an expensive repeal campaign spearheaded by Amazon.
While Amazon has publicly opposed secret government surveillance, as revealed by Freedom of Information Act requests it has supplied facial recognition support to law enforcement in the form of the "Rekognition" technology and consulting services.
Amazon offered to connect Washington County with other Amazon government customers interested in Rekognition and a body camera manufacturer.
These ventures are opposed by a coalition of civil rights groups with concern that they could lead to expansion of surveillance and be prone to abuse.
Specifically, it could automate the identification and tracking of anyone, particularly in the context of potential police body camera integration.
Amazon lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection and intellectual property.
According to regulatory filings, Amazon. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American electronic commerce and cloud computing company. The Amazon Spheres , part of the Amazon headquarters campus in Seattle.
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Amazon. History of Amazon and Timeline of Amazon.
List of Amazon products and services. Amazon portal Seattle portal Internet portal Companies portal. Retrieved November 22, The Wall Street Journal.
The indigenous people called this river the Conoris. Early publications, as was the style of the day, called the river after its European explorer, the Orellana.
As many as 30 missions were founded in Amazon territory, seven in Brazil, between and By the early 18th century, they were destroyed by the Portuguese, depopulated by smallpox, or their indigenous residents taken away as slaves by Portuguese Bandeirantes.
A few were taken over by Portuguese Carmelites. The destruction of the missions was the end of Spanish claims in western Amazonia.
Exploration and colonization thence followed the waterway upstream. The first documented Portuguese foray into upper Amazonia was the expedition of Portuguese explorer and military officer Pedro Teixeira , who followed the great river from the Atlantic Ocean to Quito, Equador with 70 soldiers and 1, Indians in forty-seven great canoes — He returned by the same route, arriving back in Belem in Tropical jungle is hostile and impenetrable as well as European settlements were exclusively along the waterways.
The character of the settlements was of three kinds: The Portuguese Carmelites got a later start than the Spanish Jesuits, but their impact was more durable.
This was the beginning of what came to be called the Jesuit—Carmelite War. Antidote to settlement was disease: A Carmelite Friar had notable success with the method of variolation in , but the technique was not propagated.
The Jenner cowpox vaccine was not introduced in Brazil until Variolation was prohibited in , and vaccination was mandated in But epidemics got worse until finally petering out around the turn of the century.
The boundary between the Portuguese and Spanish domination of the Amazon was eventually fixed at the Rio Javari river that rises on the border between Amazonas state, Brazil, and Loreto department, Peru by the Treaty of Madrid in By the midth century, the effective boundary between the two empires, the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru and Portuguese Brazil, had shifted to the area of the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, in upper Amazonia.
While the Treaty of Madrid in implicitly recognized the principle of uti possiditis , it did not actually specify the northern borders of the country.
In the upper Salomoes, Spanish missionary influence was being displaced, and the Viceroy was indifferent to colonization, but Portuguese settlements were not yet established.
Part of the northern boundary between Brazil and what was then British Guyana, was set by the Spanish Boundary-line Commission of Yturriaga and Solano — At the time of the independence in Brazil in , residents of the village [ ambiguous ] proclaimed themselves independent, establishing a provisional government.
Only in August did the new governor swore loyalty to the Brazilian Emperor. During Cabanagem in —40, the Amazon remained loyal to the imperial government and not joined the revolt.
From the midth century, the territory began to receive migrants from the northeast seeking a better life. Attracted by the rubber boom, they settled in important Amazonian cities such as Manaus, Tabatinga, Parintins, Itacoatiara and Barcelos, the first capital of Amazonas.
The state had an era of splendor in the s, at the peak of the rubber boom. However, the economic gains were largely the result of great human suffering: Manaus, which already boasted as the capital administrative of the State, experienced a great population growth and the economic advancement, resulting mainly from exports of raw materials until then exclusively from Amazon Region.
Vista as a reference, your headquarters became a symbol of prosperity and civilization for the Amazonas State, being the center of important artistic and cultural events.
Bloomed so trade in luxury products and superfluous, with men and women from all over the world parading its streets and avenues, at purchase of the so-called "black gold" , as was dubbed the natural rubber, to resell big profits in the main capitals of Europe and in the United States from ,  difficult times began,   due to the strong competition of natural rubber planted in rubber plantations the Asian continent, to European and American markets with superior advantages, which ultimately enact bankruptcy of Amazonian economy.
By the late 19th century, the Brazilian rubber monopoly was slowly dying, as British and Dutch plantations in South-East Asia were producing cheaper, superior quality rubber, and by the Amazonas state had fallen into serious economic decline.
Despite the adoption in , that project has only been in fact deployed, by Decree-Law number of 28 February In its years of existence, the story of the Manaus Free Trade Zone is divided into four phases: Characterized by being the largest of the States of Brazil, with an area of 1,, Amazonas has most of its land occupied by forest reserves and water.
The access to the region is mainly made by waterway or by plane. Amazonas is split by the Amazon river, the largest river by volume of water in the world.
Most rivers are navigable for large ships. Its latitude is within five degrees of the equator—which is dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome , and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species-rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.
The largest biodiversity of the planet is present across the State of Amazonas, generating great surprise in its visitors.
The state achieved a very great population growth in the early 20th century, due to the golden period of rubber, and after installation of the Industrial Pole of Manaus, in the s.
The state still maintains population rates above the national average. In the s the state had a population growth of 3.
In the period between the years and , Amazon grew by 2. For , the estimate is 4,, inhabitants. The composition of Amazonian population by gender shows that for every female residents of the state there are 96 men; this small imbalance between the sexes is because women have a life expectancy of eight years higher than that of men.
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